发展金融的创新

罗马—40多年前,世界最富有国家承诺至少将GDP的0.7%用于官方发展援助(ODA)。但只有不到六个国家实际达到了这一目标。事实上,ODA支付一直不稳定、不可靠也没有反应需求,关于其有效性的怀疑也从未消散。

冷战后,ODA大幅缩水,1997—2001年间只占发达国家总GDP的0.22%。2001年9月11日美国遭遇恐怖袭击以及2002年墨西哥蒙特雷国际发展金融会议之后,ODA有所增加。接着,随着全球经济危机导致发达国家纷纷采取严厉财政紧缩,ODA再次回落,2010—2011年间只占GDP的0.31%。

但是,自蒙特雷会议以来,发展金融需求大幅增加,包括贸易援助机制和气候变化抑制和适应融资。尽管创新发展融资领导小组(Leading Group on Innovative Financing for Development,由63国政府和国际组织和公民社会团体组成)在过去十年中起到了极大的推动作用,但创新发展金融的概念仍在争议中。事实上,批评者认为领导小组认定的作为潜在融资源的国际税——比如碳排税——损害了国家主权。

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