La era del desorden

NUEVA YORK – No es fácil reconocer las eras históricas antes de que terminen. El Renacimiento sólo llegó a ser el Renacimiento en retrospectiva; lo mismo puede decirse de la Edad Oscura que lo precedió, y de muchas otras eras. La razón es simple: ante cualquier acontecimiento, sea prometedor o preocupante, es imposible saber si es un hecho aislado o señal del inicio de una tendencia duradera.

Sin embargo, me atrevo a asegurar que estamos presenciando el fin de una era en la historia mundial y el comienzo de otra. Ya pasaron veinticinco años desde la caída del Muro de Berlín, que puso fin a cuarenta años de Guerra Fría. Siguió una era de predominio estadounidense, mayor prosperidad para muchos, aparición de numerosas sociedades y sistemas políticos relativamente abiertos, y difusión de la paz, incluido un importante grado de cooperación entre las principales potencias. Pero esa era terminó, y su fin preanuncia el inicio de una época mucho menos ordenada y pacífica.

Medio Oriente está en los albores de una Guerra de los Treinta Años moderna, donde las lealtades políticas y religiosas serán motor de conflictos prolongados, y a veces feroces, dentro y a través de las fronteras nacionales. Rusia, con su accionar en Ucrania y otros sitios, desafió lo que venía siendo un orden europeo mayormente estable y basado en el principio jurídico de no aceptar la toma de territorios por la fuerza militar.

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