G7 Protests Joerg Koch/Getty Images

La nouvelle réaction anti-mondialisation

PRINCETON – Un sentiment de malaise palpable s'est fait sentir lors du dernier sommet du G-7 à Ise-Shima au Japon. Àla prochaine rencontre des dirigeants des grandes économies développées du monde, nul ne peut dire lequel d'entre eux fera partie des insurgés populistes. Le président Donald Trump pourrait représenter les États-Unis, ou la Présidente Marine Le Pen pourrait représenter la France. Ils pourraient siéger avec le Premier ministre britannique Boris Johnson, le Premier ministre italien Beppe Grillo ou même avec la Chancelière allemande Frauke Petry. Chacun d'eux pourrait se faire le champion du nationalisme et de l'isolationnisme, sous une forme ou une autre.

La réaction contre la mondialisation dure depuis deux décennies. À la fin du XXème siècle, la tendance mondiale était apparemment à la convergence et les gens semblaient consommer partout les mêmes produits. McDonald's a illustré ce genre de mondialisation : casser les magasins de cette chaîne est devenu une forme standard de protestation contre la mondialisation.

Mais ces derniers temps, le caractère de la mondialisation a changé, de même que la réaction contre elle. Bien que le monde soit toujours de plus en plus interconnecté, il existe un sentiment que nous comprenons moins les étrangers. En réponse à l'évolution des préférences des consommateurs (qui sont en l'occurrence de plus en plus pointues), les entreprises délocalisent leur production plus près des marchés où les marchandises seront vendues. Cela affaiblit la croissance du commerce international.

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