Julgamentos por Genocídio Nunca Mais

HEIDELBERG – Raramente se lêem notícias tão promissoras: em Junho passado, o Tribunal Penal Internacional para a ex-Jugoslávia (TPIJ) absolveu o antigo líder Sérvio Bósnio Radovan Karadžić de genocídio. Isso pode parecer negativo: Karadžić, que em tempos avisara os Muçulmanos da Bósnia que a guerra os levaria direitos ao inferno, merece certamente ser condenado pelos actos de que foi absolvido – homicídio, assédio e chacina quase inomináveis. Mas por genocídio? Melhor não.

De facto, ficaríamos muito melhor se nos livrássemos do genocídio como um crime de uma vez por todas. O conceito legal do genocídio é tão incoerente, tão nocivo aos propósitos servidos pela lei internacional, que teria sido melhor se nunca o tivéssemos inventado. A absolvição de Karadžić – precisamente por ainda estar a ser julgado noutros processos relacionados com as mesmas atrocidades – é uma oportunidade para nos movermos em direcção ao sensato objectivo de o eliminarmos.

Esta não foi uma absolvição qualquer. O TPIJ decidiu que, depois de um julgamento de dois anos, a acusação não tinha apresentado provas suficientes para qualquer tribunal declarar Karadžić culpado de genocídio no início da Guerra da Bósnia (ele enfrenta uma condenação separada para o massacre de Julho de 1995 em Srebrenica, e a acusação está a recorrer da absolvição). O tribunal tem sido consistente: ao faltarem apenas alguns julgamentos, não emitiu sentenças por genocídio para além de Srebrenica.

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