La paix remarquable du Népal

KATMANDOU – Pushpa Kamal Dahal, leader maoïste népalais plus connu sous le nom de « Prachanda », vient de prêter serment comme Premier ministre, le tout premier de la République démocratique fédérale du Népal, après une victoire écrasante à l’Assemblée constituante élue en avril. Cette assemblée a marqué son effort d’ouverture en votant quasiment à l’unanimité pour abolir une monarchie vieille de 239 ans : en juin, l'ancien roi Gyanendra déchu a quitté son palais pour devenir un citoyen népalais lambda.

A la suite du massacre en 2001 de l’ancien monarque et de sa famille, le Népal a fait des apparitions furtives à la une des journaux, tandis que la sanglante guerre civile qui a duré dix ans a rarement été évoquée sur la scène internationale. Le processus de paix unique en son genre a peu attiré l'attention extérieure sur le pays depuis que les armes sont redevenues silencieuses il y a deux ans. Pourtant, parmi les nombreux conflits en cours et processus de paix en échec dans le monde, la réussite du Népal mérite notre reconnaissance et notre soutien.

Je suis arrivé au Népal au milieu de l'année 2005, au moment ou les deux camps du conflit armé violaient les droits de l'homme et où Gyanendra imposait de sévères mesures contre les droits démocratiques pour s’emparer d’un pouvoir absolu. Au vu de cette situation chaotique, la communauté internationale a jugé bon d’installer sur place un organe de contrôle du Haut Commissariat aux droits de l'homme des Nations unies. Les possibilités de mettre un terme à une guerre faisant des milliers de victimes civiles et d’établir la démocratie semblaient bien abstraites ; et personne n'aurait pu prédire que les Népalais feraient ainsi part de leur aspiration à la paix et au changement.

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