Problemas en el paraíso nepalés

NUEVA DELHI – Lejos del foco de los titulares mundiales, Nepal está luchando con una crisis constitucional que une vez más podría propulsar a la meca turística, situada delicadamente entre India y China, a un conflicto abierto.

De 1996 a 2006, Nepal estuvo asolado por una guerra civil que provocó un movimiento insurgente contra la monarquía que había gobernado durante largo tiempo, cuyo poderoso ejército contó en un principio con el respaldo de los partidos políticos democráticos del país. La paz se logró únicamente (quebrantada por India con el apoyo activo de las Naciones Unidas) cuando los maoístas y los demócratas acordaron en 2005 establecer una asamblea constituyente. Las primeras elecciones realizadas en 2008, dos años después del “movimiento popular” forzó la abdicación del Rey Gyanendra.

En esas elecciones, los maoístas surgieron como el partido mayoritario, pues obtuvieron 240 de los 601 escaños. Después llegaron fuerzas antiguamente establecidas como el Congreso Nepalés, partido social-demócrata que siguió el modelo del partido indio de nombre homónimo, y el moderado Partido Comunista de Nepal (Marxistas-Leninistas Unificados), que pese a su nombre está comprometido con la política electoral dentro de un sistema democrático. Además, la movilización de nuevos partidos en las llanuras meridionales de Nepal, que representan al pueblo madhesi, obtuvo 80 escaños en una estructura de mayor federalismo, garantizando así que ningún partido o agrupación domine la asamblea.

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