La différence entre les besoins et l’avidité

NEW YORK – Le guide spirituel de l’Inde, le mahatma Gandhi, a dit autrefois qu’il y a assez de tout dans le monde pour satisfaire aux besoins de l’homme, mais pas assez pour assouvir son avidité. Sa clairvoyance est plus que jamais d’actualité.

L’utilisation des ressources mondiales a aujourd’hui atteint ses limites. Nous en ressentons les effets chaque jour, avec des inondations, des sécheresses et des tempêtes catastrophiques – et par la flambée des prix des matières premières sur les marchés. Notre destin sera forgé soit par notre capacité à coopérer, soit par le choix d’une cupidité autodestructrice.

Les limites imposées à l’économie mondiale sont récentes, liées à la taille sans précédent de la population mondiale et à la propagation d’une croissance économique également sans précédent à l’ensemble de la planète. La Terre abrite aujourd’hui sept milliards d’individus, contre trois milliards il y a un demi siècle. Le revenu par tête moyen s’élève à 10.000 dollars par an, avec une moyenne de 40.000 dollars pour les pays riches et de 4000 dollars environ pour les pays en développement. Cela signifie que le PIB mondial avoisinait les 70.000 milliards de dollars en 2010, contre 10.000 milliards en 1960.

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