La OTAN después de Riga

Cuando colapsó la Unión Soviética, muchos predijeron el fin de la Organización del Tratado del Atlántico Norte (OTAN). Sin embargo, hace unas cuantas semanas la OTAN celebró su reunión cumbre en Riga, capital de Letonia, república que antiguamente formaba parte de la URSS.

La OTAN fue creada en 1949 como una alianza para hacer frente al poder soviético. Su foco de atención era Europa Occidental y, como se decía en tono de broma, estaba ideada para mantener a los rusos afuera, a los alemanes abajo y a los estadounidenses adentro. No obstante, esa Guerra Fría hace mucho que terminó: Alemania es una democracia firmemente arraigada en la Unión Europea, y no existe la amenaza de una acometida de tanques soviéticos por las llanuras del norte alemán.

La OTAN sobrevivió mediante la transformación de si misma. Si bien algunos paises de Europa Central que son miembros de la alianza y sufrieron en el pasado la ocupación soviética siguen viéndola como una póliza de seguros contra el resurgimiento de las ambiciones rusas, la OTAN ya no está dirigida contra Rusia. De hecho, no hay problemas para que las autoridades rusas participen en ejercicios militares y visiten el cuartel general de la OTAN, en virtud del programa Asociación para la Paz. Las suspicacias que aún persisten y el orgullo nacional ruso limitan el entendimiento entre la OTAN y Rusia, pero la organización ya no tiene como objetivo hacer frente a ese país.

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