IMF Fabrice Coffrini/ Getty Images

Donald Trump et le nouvel ordre économique mondial

HONG KONG – Après la fin de la Deuxième Guerre mondiale, le principal objectif économique était relativement clair. Il fallait avant tout créer une économie mondiale ouverte, innovatrice et dynamique impulsée par le marché, qui devait permettre à tous les pays de prospérer et de croître. Ensuite, loin derrière, il fallait parvenir à une croissance vigoureuse, durable et inclusive. Rien de plus.

Or il semble qu'il y ait une inversion de la hiérarchie de ces objectifs. Le premier d'entre eux est maintenant de parvenir à une croissance inclusive pour redonner élan à une classe moyenne en déclin, relancer à la hausse des salaires stagnants et combattre le chômage des jeunes. Des accords commerciaux mutuellement bénéfiques relatifs au flux des biens, des capitaux, de la technologie et des personnes (les 4 grands flux de l'économie mondiale) ne sont justifiés que s'ils renforcent cet objectif - ou tout au moins ne s'y opposent pas.

Cette inversion est devenue manifeste lorsque les Britanniques – dont ceux qui bénéficient clairement du système économique et financier ouvert d'aujourd'hui – ont voté pour le Brexit en se fondant sur ce que l'on pourrait appeler le principe de souveraineté. Ils perçoivent les institutions européennes comme un obstacle à la capacité du pays à relancer son économie, à réguler l'immigration et à rester maître de son avenir.

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