Nationalism Flanders flag protest Tijl Vercaemer/Flickr

Парадокс политики идентичности

БАРСЕЛОНА – Недавние всеобщие выборы в Великобритании стали ярким примером того, как вопрос национальной идентичности меняет политический ландшафт Европы. Шотландская национальная партия, взявшая на вооружение левый вариант политики идентичности, разгромила лейбористов в Шотландии, что позволило консерваторам получить абсолютное большинство в парламенте. Правительство премьер-министра Дэвида Кэмерона, занятого, кстати, британской идентичностью, а не общностью судеб Великобритании и Европы, твердо намерено провести референдум о продолжении членства страны в Европейском Союзе, последствия которого непредсказуемы.

Десятилетиями политические дебаты в Европе касались в основном экономической политики и институтов. Консерваторы настаивали на экономике с сильным частным сектором, свободным рынком, низкими налогами, сниженными госрасходами и ограниченным набором государственных услуг. Либералы и социальные демократы поддерживали приватизированную экономику, рынок, европейскую интеграцию и растущую торговлю, но при этом с перераспределительной налоговой системой, крупными трансфертами, сильной системой социальной поддержки, государственным участием в некоторых отраслях экономики, например, инфраструктурных и финансовых.

В этой биполярной системе партии отличались нюансами экономической политики, но в целом были едины в поддержке демократических ценностей, европейского проекта, а также признавали необходимость адаптироваться к глобализации, а не отрицать ее в принципе. Однако эта ситуация меняется на фоне растущей популярности призывов к самоопределению и возрождения этнического и религиозного национализма. Действительно ли призраки начала и середины ХХ века возвращаются?

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