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Nationalism Flanders flag protest Tijl Vercaemer/Flickr

身份政治的悖论

巴塞罗那—最近的英国大选是一个显著的例子,表明了民族身份问题如何左右着欧洲政治格局。持有左倾身份政治观的苏格兰民族党(Scottish National Party)在苏格兰重挫工党,让保守党赢得议会绝对多数。首相卡梅伦的政府——卡梅伦一直关注英国身份而非英国和欧洲的共同身份——将毫不迟疑地举行关于英国是否继续留在欧盟内的结果难料的公投。

几十年来,欧洲政治争论大多集中在经济制度和政策上。保守派支持通过私人部门驱动的经济、自由市场、低税收、削减政府支出和限制公共品。自由派和社会民主派支持私人所有权经济、市场、欧洲一体化和增加贸易,辅之以带巨大的再分配性质的税收和转移支付、强大的社会安全网以及基础设施和金融领域的某种程度的公共所有权。

在这个两极分化的体系中,政党在经济政策的细节上有分歧,但总体上都认同民主价值、欧洲工程以及适应和管理全球化的需要,而不是全盘否定。但是,随着身份吁求的日渐成功和种族和宗教民族主义的复兴,局面正在改变。二十世纪中早期的幽灵正在死灰复燃吗?

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