Los próximos logros comerciales

STANFORD – Las noticias económicas son sombrías en todas partes del mundo. El crecimiento de la producción este año ha dejado que desear y las previsiones del Fondo Monetario Internacional muestran apenas una ligera mejoría para 2015. Europa podría estar volviendo a caer en una recesión, e incluso la alguna vez robusta economía alemana está tambaleante. La economía China se está desacelerando, y Brasil, Rusia e India están luchando para evitar un estancamiento.

Así pues, es una pena que se estén desatendiendo tres oportunidades importantes de crecimiento mediante una liberalización comercial –la Ronda de Doha para el Desarrollo de la Organización Mundial del Comercio, el Acuerdo Transpacífico de Cooperación Económica (TTP) de la región Asia-Pacífico, y la Asociación Trasatlántica de Comercio e Inversión (TTIP) entre los Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea. Si se diseñan adecuadamente, las tres tienen el potencial de estimular el crecimiento mundial. Mediante la reducción de aranceles y barreras no arancelarias, la protección de la propiedad intelectual y la armonización de la reglamentación, se podrían generar cientos de miles de millones de dólares de producción –y millones de empleos mejor pagados.

Esta es una lección del Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte (TLCAN), que cumple su vigésimo aniversario este año. En NAFTA at 20, publicación que edité, los expertos académicos y los responsables del diseño de políticas explican cómo el emblemático tratado de libre comercio es un ejemplo de los beneficios de la liberalización comercial –y por qué los líderes políticos deberían seguirlo.

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