Les prochaines percées commerciales

STANFORD – Les nouvelles économiques sont mauvaises partout dans le monde. La croissance de la production de cette année a été décevante, et le Fonds monétaire international s’attend seulement à une légère amélioration en 2015. L'Europe pourrait être en train de glisser vers une nouvelle récession ; même l'économie allemande, autrefois pourtant robuste, se trouve au bord du gouffre. La Chine est en train de rétrograder ; le Brésil, la Russie et l'Inde ont du mal à éviter un décrochage.

Il est donc dommage que trois opportunités importantes de croissance au moyen de la libéralisation du commerce – le cycle de Doha de l'Organisation mondiale du commerce, le l'Accord de partenariat transpacifique  (TPP) dans la région Asie-Pacifique ainsi que le le Partenariat transatlantique de commerce et d'investissement (TTIP) entre le États-Unis et l’Europe – sont négligés. S’ils sont bien conçus, tous trois ont le potentiel de stimuler la croissance mondiale. Grâce à la réduction des barrières tarifaires et non tarifaires, la protection de la propriété intellectuelle et l'harmonisation des réglementations, des centaines de milliards de dollars de production – et des millions d'emplois mieux rémunérés – pourraient être générés.

C’est la leçon de l'Accord de libre-échange nord-américain (ALENA), qui célèbre son 20e anniversaire cette année. Dans l'ALENA a 20 vingt ans, un livre que j’ai édité, plusieurs décideurs et chercheurs expliquent comment ce traité commercial historique illustre les avantages de la libéralisation des échanges – et pourquoi les dirigeants politiques devraient poursuivre sur cette voie.

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