التجارة والتقدم الخارق التالي

ستانفورد ــ يبدو أن الأنباء الاقتصادية قاتمة في مختلف أنحاء العالم. ففي عامنا هذا كان نمو الناتج مخيباً للآمال، ويتوقع صندوق النقد الدولي تحسناً طفيفاً في عام 2015. وربما تنزلق أوروبا عائدة إلى الركود، حتى أن الاقتصاد الألماني الذي كان قوياً ذات يوم يترنح الآن على حافة الهاوية. وتنتقل الصين إلى وتيرة نمو أدنى، في حين تناضل البرازيل وروسيا والهند في محاولة لتجنب توقف النمو.

لذا فمن المؤسف أن تكون الفرص الثلاث المهمة للنمو بفضل تحرير التجارة ــ جولة الدوحة للتنمية التابعة لمنظمة التجارة العالمية، والشراكة عبر المحيط الهادئ في منطقة آسيا والمحيط الهادئ، وشراكة التجارة والاستثمار عبر الأطلسي بين الولايات المتحدة وأوروبا ــ موضع إهمال. فإذا جاء تصميم هذه الفرص الثلاث على النحو الصحيح فإنها كفيلة بتحفيز النمو العالمي. ومن خلال خفض الحواجز الجمركية وغير الجمركية، وحماية الملكية الفكرية، وتنسيق ومواءمة القيود التنظيمية، يصبح من الممكن توليد مئات المليارات من الدولارات من الناتج ــ والملايين من فرص العمل المجزية.

هذا هو الدرس المستفاد من اتفاقية التجارة الحرة لأميركا الشمالية (نافتا)، والتي تحتفل بعيد مولدها العشرين هذا العام. في الكتاب الذي توليت تحريره بعنوان "النافتا في العشرين" يفسر صناع السياسات والباحثون كيف تجسد هذه الاتفاقية المهمة فوائد تحرير التجارة ــ ولماذا يتعين على الزعماء السياسيين أن يلاحقوا هدف تحرير التجارة.

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