Traffic in LA/ USA pollution Kevork Djansezian/Getty Images

Pourquoi a-t-on encore besoin du multilatéralisme

MADRID – D’un bout à l’autre de l’Occident, la foi dans la gouvernance internationale et la mondialisation économique décline. Comme l’a démontré la victoire de Donald Trump lors de l'élection présidentielle aux États-Unis, les électeurs, poussés par un sentiment d'injustice et d'inégalité, rejettent de plus en plus l'ouverture, ainsi que l'establishment politique qui l’a soutenue. Cependant, bien que les griefs qui alimentent ces choix soient réels – la mondialisation a laissé beaucoup de personnes sur le bord de la route – le traitement est susceptible de causer plus de mal que la maladie.

Trump a gagné en promettant de rechercher des solutions unilatérales et de repli sur soi, un peu comme celles préconisées par les partisans de la sortie du Royaume-Uni de l'Union européenne. Les électeurs ont été galvanisés par la perspective de rejeter de nouveaux accords de libre-échange comme le Partenariat Trans-Pacifique (TPP) et de renégocier d’anciens accords comme l'Accord de libre-échange nord-américain (ALENA). Ils manifestent contre les organismes multilatéraux comme l'Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) – le principal forum pour la négociation et la mise en œuvre des normes du commerce mondial et l'une des seules organisations internationales disposant d’une entité quasi judiciaire de règlement des différends.

Tout cela ne tient pas compte d'un fait crucial: dans le monde d'aujourd'hui, se replier sur soi n’est pas une option viable, en particulier pour les démocraties libérales occidentales. Nous sommes tout simplement trop interconnectés; les problèmes, les défis et les opportunités auxquels nous sommes confrontés ne se soucient pas des frontières nationales.

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