Medvedev doit libéraliser la Russie

MOSCOU - L'élection de Dimitri Medvedev comme président de la Russie était un événement attendu. Mais il n'est pas certain qu'il puisse améliorer la situation économique de la Russie une fois à la tête de l'Etat au mois de mai.

Il est vrai que le gouvernement de Poutine lui transmet une économie apparemment prometteuse. Entre 1999 et 2008, la croissance moyenne a été de 7,2%, les réserves étrangères représentaient 30% du PIB - les troisièmes du monde en valeur absolue - le volume boursier a été multiplié par 20, la classe moyenne achète des voitures étrangères, fréquente les restaurants japonais et part en vacances à l'étranger. Les sondages montrent  que le niveau de satisfaction de la population a augmenté.

Le succès économique de la Russie tient en partie au prix élevé du pétrole et des matières premières. Mais tout ne se résume pas au pétrole. La réforme fiscale de 2001 encourage le travail et limite l'évasion fiscale avec un taux uniforme d'impôt sur le revenu de 13% - l'un des plus bas de la planète. La libéralisation des procédures de création d'entreprise et la limitation des inspections ont crée un climat favorable aux petites entreprises et aux entrepreneurs. Une politique macroéconomique prudente et la réforme du secteur financier ont permis une baisse des taux d'intérêt, favorisé les investissements et dopé la consommation.

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