Moscou et le Moyen-Orient

L’influence croissante de l'Iran au Moyen-Orient est non seulement renforcée par la frustration que représente la présence américaine en Irak, mais aussi par la protection diplomatique qu’il a reçue de la Chine, et, surtout, de la Russie. Le président Poutine est actuellement en tournée au Moyen-Orient pour faire étalage de sa force diplomatique, c’est donc le bon moment d’évaluer l’influence de son pays dans la région.

Brandissant la menace d'un veto au conseil de sécurité de l'ONU, la Russie a passé la plupart des deux dernières années à tailler au couteau dans la liste de sanctions censées être imposées à l'Iran pour avoir violé son engagement envers l'Agence internationale de l'énergie atomique (AIEA). En conséquence, le conseil de sécurité a aujourd'hui adopté un ensemble de mesures si tièdes qu'elles n'auront sans doute aucun effet sur l'attitude de l'Iran.

La Russie voit ses relations avec l'Iran comme un moyen d'exercer son influence diplomatique au Moyen-Orient, là où les États-unis ont réussi à marginaliser le Kremlin depuis la fin de la Guerre froide. L'autre objectif égoïste de la Russie a été d'exempter de sanctions le réacteur nucléaire de Bushehr qu'elle construit pour l'Iran. Une pression financière exercée sur l'Iran et sponsorisée par l'ONU mettrait en danger les bénéfices que la Russie tirerait de l'approvisionnement en combustible nucléaire pour le réacteur, qui doit être mis en service à la fin de l'année.

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