Marokkos verschleierte Feministinnen

Es wird oft angenommen, dass der moderne Feminismus in Gesellschaften, in denen ein religiöses Wiederaufleben stattfindet, besonders in der islamischen Welt, keinen Platz habe und somit schlecht vorankommen könne. Doch deuten die in den letzten Jahren tatsächlich erzielten Fortschritte bei den Frauenrechten in Marokko auf etwas anderes hin: Eine einzigartige Verbindung aus dem Aktivismus weltlicher und religiöser Frauen, dem Kalkül politischer Parteien und einer wichtigen Rolle des Königs hat zu echtem Fortschritt geführt.

Die Vorreiterinnen des marokkanischen Feminismus fingen bald nach der Unabhängigkeit 1956 mit ihrer Arbeit an. Obwohl sie im Großen und Ganzen eine liberale Sichtweise vertraten, erkannten sie trotzdem die Bedeutung des Islams in der marokkanischen Gesellschaft an. Infolgedessen achteten sie darauf, ihre Forderungen so zu formulieren, dass sie ein gewisses Maß an islamischer Identität enthielten.

Die erste Generation marokkanischer Feministinnen wurde von einer wichtigen Einsicht geleitet: Der Umgang zwischen Männern und Frauen wurde nicht von der Religion diktiert, sondern von gesellschaftlichen Bräuchen, die häufig die Religion als Mittel der Verstärkung benutzt hatten. Zum Beispiel wurde die sexuelle Reinheit der Frauen mit der Ehre der Männer und ihrer Familien verknüpft – eine Verbindung, die gerechtfertigt wurde, indem man sie auf den Islam stützte. Für die Aktivistinnen steckte hinter derartigen Verbindungen die Absicht, die Kontrolle über Frauen zu erhalten, sie waren Teil der marokkanischen Gesellschaft, nicht des Islams.

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