Les féministes voilées du Maroc

Le féminisme moderne n'aurait pas de place dans les sociétés qui connaissent un renouveau religieux, tout particulièrement dans le monde islamique. Mais les améliorations portées au droit des femmes depuis quelques années au Maroc démentent cette idée. Exemple peut-être unique, le militantisme des femmes laïques et religieuses, joint à la stratégie des partis politiques et au rôle significatif joué par le roi ont conduit à de réelles avancées.

Les pionnières du féminisme marocain sont apparues peu après l'indépendance en 1956. Tout en se plaçant dans une perspective progressiste, elles reconnaissaient l'importance de l'islam dans la société marocaine, elles ont donc inscrit leurs revendications dans un cadre qui faisait place à l'identité musulmane. La première génération de militantes féministes s'appuyait sur une idée maîtresse : les relations entre hommes et femmes ne sont pas dictées par la religion mais par la tradition, l'invocation de la religion servant de justification. Ainsi, au nom de l'islam on liait la pureté sexuelle de la femme à l'honneur de l'homme et de sa famille. Pour ces militantes, ce type de rapport entre virginité et honneur servait à maintenir le contrôle sur les femmes et relevait de la coutume et non de l'islam.

Dans les années 1990, l'impact de la révolution iranienne et l'émergence des USA comme seule superpuissance de l'après-Guerre froide se sont fait sentir au Maroc. Comme dans beaucoup de pays musulmans, l'islam politique a connu un essor à ce moment là. Sa progression constituait une menace tant pour l'autorité du roi qui chapeautait l'establishment religieux que pour les féministes qui voulaient réformer le Code de la famille, basé sur une interprétation rigide du Coran.

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