Wind turbines in farmland

Las energías renovables y la renovación económica de Oriente Próximo

FEZ – La caída global de los precios del petróleo ha sido devastadora para las economías de Oriente Próximo y el norte de África. Puede que varios gobernantes de la región tengan la tentación de esperar a que los precios vuelvan a subir, tras haber visto que en el pasado también hubo importantes descensos. Pero este colapso es diferente, y los gobiernos deben adoptar nuevas estrategias energéticas y de desarrollo. Las iniciativas de Marruecos para convertirse en una potencia regional de las energías renovables ofrecen una opción real para el desarrollo económico en otros países árabes.

Marruecos lleva ya algún tiempo invirtiendo en proyectos de energías renovables a gran escala, pero sólo ahora estas inversiones están entrando en la red. Quizás la más notable sea el gigantesco complejo de energía solar llamado Noor-1, en el desierto marroquí cerca de Ouarzazate. Inaugurado el 4 de febrero, usa tecnología altamente avanzada para almacenar energía que pueda usarse de noche y en días nublados.

Se espera que Noor-1, considerada la mayor planta solar del mundo, produzca energía suficiente para más de un millón de personas y que la potencia sobrante se pueda exportar a Francia y África, según lo estimado por el Banco Mundial. Puesto que Marruecos importa cerca del 97% de su energía y no posee yacimientos propios de petróleo o gas, su gobierno ha visto el desarrollo de energía renovable como la única manera de asegurar la continuidad del desarrollo económico nacional. Se trata de una conclusión que otros países de la región deberían considerar.

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