Wind turbines in farmland

Erneuerbare Energien und die wirtschaftliche Erneuerung des Mittleren Ostens

FÈS – Der Absturz der globalen Ölpreise hat sich verheerend auf die Volkswirtschaften im Mittleren Osten und in Nordafrika ausgewirkt. Angesichts vergangener starker Preisrückgänge könnten viele Regierungen versucht sein, auf einen neuerlichen Anstieg der Preise zu warten. Doch der diesmalige Preiseinbruch ist anders, und die Regierungen brauchen neue Energie- und Entwicklungsstrategien. Marokkos Anstrengungen, sich zu einem regionalen Zentrum für erneuerbare Energien zu entwickeln, stellen auch für die Wirtschaftsentwicklung in anderen arabischen Ländern eine echte Option dar.

Marokko investiert schon seit einiger Zeit in Großprojekte im Bereich der erneuerbaren Energien, doch gehen diese Investitionen erst jetzt ans Netz. Die vielleicht beeindruckendste von ihnen ist die gigantische Solaranlage Noor-1 in der marokkanischen Wüste, in der Nähe von Ouarzazate. Die am 4. Februar eröffnete Anlage nutzt hochmoderne Technologie zur Speicherung von Strom, der dann des Nachts und an bewölkten Tagen verbraucht wird.

Noor-1 gilt als größtes Solarkraftwerk der Welt und soll, so die Erwartung, ausreichend Strom für mehr als eine Million Menschen produzieren, wobei laut Angaben der Weltbank letztlich noch zusätzlicher Strom nach Europa und ins übrige Afrika exportiert werden soll. Angesichts der Tatsache, dass Marokko rund 97% seiner Energie importiert und nicht über eigene Öl- oder Gasvorkommen verfügt, betrachtet die Regierung die Entwicklung erneuerbarer Energien als einzige Möglichkeit, um die weitere wirtschaftliche Entwicklung des Landes sicherzustellen. Dies ist eine Einsicht, die andere Länder in der Region beherzigen sollten.

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