Valery Hache/AFP/Getty Images

Опасная форма глобализма

ПРИНСТОН – «Америка прежде всего», – трубит Дональд Трамп. «Британия прежде всего», – заявляют сторонники Брексита. «Франция прежде всего», – кричит Марин Ле Пен и её Национальный фронт. «Россия прежде всего», – провозглашает Кремль Владимира Путина. На фоне такого внимания к вопросу национального суверенитета глобализация выглядит в наши дни обречённой.

Это не так. Сегодня не идёт борьба глобализма с антиглобализмом. Мир оказался в центре соперничества двух моделей интеграции. Одна модель основана на принципах интернационализма и многосторонних подходов (мультилатерализм), а вторая – на империализме и двусторонних отношениях (билатерализм). Мир колеблется между ними в течение всей современной истории.

Начиная с 1945 года, интернационалисты доминировали. Они выступали за сотрудничество и многосторонние институты, содействующие созданию глобальных общественных благ – мир, безопасность, финансовая стабильность, экологическая устойчивость. Их модель ограничивает национальный суверенитет, заставляя государства соблюдать общие нормы, конвенции и договоры.

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