Mauvaises nouvelles du côté du FMI

Le FMI a eu mauvaise presse l'année dernière. Il y a d'abord eu des luttes intestines au sujet de la désignation d'un nouveau directeur général. L'Allemagne a soutenu la candidature d'un bureaucrate peu qualifié et quasiment inconnu qui n'a pas été retenue ; pour éviter au chancelier Schröder de perdre la face, on a finalement choisi Horst Kohler dont la principale qualité est d'être allemand, contrairement à ses deux prédécesseurs, Jacques De Larosière et Michel Camdessus, de distingués inspecteurs des finances français, autrement dit la crème de la crème de l'élite bureaucratique française. Le coup suivant est venu des Etats-Unis avec les critiques formulées par le parti républicain accusant la stratégie du FMI de n'être rien d'autre qu'une suite sans fin de plans de sauvetage. Ce reproche a été repris par le rapport Meltzer qui est suspendu comme une épée de Damoclès au-dessus du FMI depuis que les Républicains sont revenus au pouvoir.

Le Congrès américain n'a jamais eu beaucoup de sympathie pour le FMI. Les Démocrates remettent en question les programmes pour leur rigidité, les Républicains critiquent les plans de sauvetage et personne n'a rien de positif à proposer. Les critiques viennent non seulement de la droite américaine, mais aussi de l'institution voisine, la Banque mondiale. Le tir le plus nourri a été déclenché par l'affaire Stiglitz, du nom de l'économiste en chef de la Banque mondiale qui a accusé le FMI d'incurie sous les applaudissements d’économistes et de politiciens incompétents à travers le monde.

Les derniers coups viennent seulement d'être portés – tout d'abord, Michael Mussa, l'économiste en chef du FMI, un homme de talent formé à l'université de Chicago, réputé pour sa qualité de jugement, a démissionné. Il avait prédit la plupart des crises qui ont éclaté, ce qui n'avait pas contribué à augmenter sa popularité au sein des instances dirigeantes du FMI. Il était aussi connu pour ses brillants exposés – certains, à l'intérieur du microcosme du FMI, trouvaient cela insupportable.

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