south korea new president Jung Yeon-je/AFP/Getty Images

La Ostpolitik surcoreana de Moon

SEÚL – Moon Jae-in del Partido Democrático de Corea acaba de ser elegido el nuevo presidente de Corea del Sur. Es la segunda transición de poder conservador a poder liberal en la historia democrática del país. Comenzó inesperadamente en octubre pasado, con la erupción de un escándalo de corrupción que involucró a la entonces presidenta Park Geun-hye y culminó en su juicio político y remoción del cargo a comienzos de este año. Si bien la salida de Park fue dolorosa, también demostró la resiliencia de la democracia de Corea del Sur.

Moon asumirá en un momento de tensiones aguzadas con Corea del Norte. Entender qué tipo de políticas querrá implementar requiere de una familiaridad con el pensamiento de política exterior liberal de Corea del Sur desde la presidencia de 1998-2003 de Kim Dae-jung.

Kim había visto cómo la Guerra Fría había llegado a un final pacífico en Europa y quería llevar la confrontación en curso de su propio país con el Norte comunista a una conclusión con igual nivel de no violencia. De manera que buscó un compromiso directo con Corea del Norte, y su "Política de Reconciliación" fue adoptada por su sucesor, Roh Moo-hyun. Antes de morir en 2009, Roh (en cuyo gobierno me desempeñé como ministro de Relaciones Exteriores) era mentor político y amigo cercano de Moon.

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