south korea new president Jung Yeon-je/AFP/Getty Images

A Ostpolitik sul-coreana de Moon

SEUL – Moon Jae-in, do Partido Democrático da Coreia, acaba de ser eleito o novo presidente da Coreia do Sul. Esta é a segunda transição do poder conservador para o poder liberal na história democrática do país. Começou, inesperadamente, em outubro passado, com o rebentamento de um escândalo de corrupção a envolver a então presidente Park Geun-hye, culminando na sua destituição e retirada do cargo no início deste ano. Embora a expulsão de Park tenha sido dolorosa, também demonstrou a capacidade de resistência da democracia da Coreia do Sul.

Moon irá assumir funções numa altura de elevada tensão com a Coreia do Norte. Para entender que tipo de política ele irá adotar, é necessário haver familiaridade com o pensamento da política externa liberal na Coreia do Sul desde a presidência, entre 1998 e 2003, de Kim Dae-jung.

Kim tinha assistido ao final pacífico da Guerra Fria na Europa e queria conduzir o confronto que ocorria entre o seu próprio país e o Norte comunista para uma conclusão semelhante sem violência. Então, ele prosseguiu com um envolvimento direto com a Coreia do Norte e a sua política “Sunshine” foi adotada pelo seu sucessor, Roh Moo-hyun. Antes de morrer, em 2009, Roh (fui ministro dos Negócios Estrangeiros durante o seu governo) foi um mentor político e amigo próximo de Moon.

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