pulse of europe demonstration Andreas Arnold/AFP/Getty Images

En defensa de Europa

BRUSELAS – La Unión Europea hoy necesita una salvación y también una reinvención radical. Salvar a la UE debe tener prioridad, porque Europa está en peligro existencial. Pero, como enfatizó el presidente francés, Emmanuel Macron, durante su campaña electoral, reanimar el respaldo con el que solía contar la UE no es menos esencial.

El peligro existencial que enfrenta la UE es, en parte, externo. La Unión está rodeada de potencias que son hostiles a lo que ella representa -la Rusia de Vladimir Putin, la Turquía de Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, el Egipto de Abdel Fattah el-Sisi y los Estados Unidos que Donald Trump crearía si pudiera.

Pero la amenaza también proviene de adentro. La UE está gobernada por tratados que, luego de la crisis financiera de 2008, se volvieron sumamente irrelevantes para las condiciones que prevalecen en la eurozona. Inclusive las innovaciones más simples, necesarias para hacer sustentable la moneda común, podrían introducirse sólo mediante acuerdos intergubernamentales fuera de los tratados existentes. Y, como el funcionamiento de las instituciones europeas se volvió cada vez más complicado, la propia UE poco a poco se fue volviendo, en algunos sentidos, disfuncional.

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