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Défendre l’Europe

BRUXELLES – L’Union européenne doit être sauvée et réinventée. La sauver, d’abord, parce que son existence même est en danger. Mais, comme l’a souligné le président français Emmanuel Macron au cours de la campagne électorale, il est non moins essentiel de ranimer la faveur dont elle jouissait auparavant.

Le danger qui pèse sur l’existence de l’UE vient pour partie de l’extérieur. Elle est entourée de puissances hostiles à ce qu’elle représente : la Russie de Vladimir Poutine, la Turquie de Recep Tayyip Erdoǧan, l’Égypte d’Abdel Fattah Al-Sissi et l’Amérique que Donald Trump aimerait, s’il le pouvait, faire advenir.

Mais la menace vient aussi de l’intérieur. L’UE est régie par des traités qui, après la crise de 2008, se sont révélés inadaptés à la situation de la zone euro. Même les plus simples des mesures nécessaires à la pérennité de la monnaie unique n’ont pu être prises qu’aux termes d’accords intergouvernementaux, hors des traités existants. Et l’UE, tandis que le fonctionnement des institutions européennes est devenu de plus en plus complexe, éprouve elle-même, à certains égards, des difficultés à fonctionner.

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