La tératogenèse de l’Égypte

BRUXELLES – Les 15 et 22 décembre, le projet de Constitution de l’Égypte sera soumis à référendum. Il y a un an, les Égyptiens étaient fous de joie à l’idée que la Constitution de leur pays reflèterait enfin leurs espoirs et aspirations démocratiques. Et pourtant, le texte sur lequel ils sont appelés à s’exprimer a toutes les chances de réduire ces espoirs à néant et d’assombrir l’avenir de la démocratie égyptienne.

La rédaction du projet de Constitution a été faite à la hâte, sans l’apport des partis de gauche, des non musulmans et des femmes, qui ont tous boycotté le processus à cause de la prédominance des islamistes. Les Frères musulmans, et surtout le président Mohamed Morsi, font le pari que le poids du vote islamiste sera suffisant pour rallier les « Égyptiens ordinaires » et que l’opposition n’aura que peu d’influence sur l’issue du scrutin.

Un conseiller politique du parti Liberté et Justice – la vitrine politique des Frères musulmans – s’est même vanté du fait que les Frères pouvaient aisément mobiliser 20 millions de partisans. Du point de vue des islamistes, les opposants qui manifestent depuis trois semaines dans les rues du pays ne seraient que des sympathisants de Moubarak.

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