Mohamed A. El-Erian,  Mexico's  government, Enrique Peña Nieto implements structural-reform, could be a Global Model Martin D/Flickr

Le moment de vérité pour le Mexique ?

MEXICO – Moins de deux ans après l’arrivée à la présidence de Enrique Peña Nieto, le Mexique est en train de mettre en œuvre un ensemble ambitieux de réformes structurelles visant à faire sortir son économie du piège de plusieurs décennies de faible croissance et à créer de nouvelles opportunités pour ses citoyens. Ces réformes impliquent la restructuration de secteurs économiques autrefois jugés politiquement intouchables, et sont soutenues par des amendements constitutionnels et un programme législatif osé.

En effet, grâce au « Pacte pour le Mexique », une large part de ce programme a non seulement le soutien du gouvernement de Peña Nieto, mais aussi des deux principaux partis d'opposition. Cet arrangement unique sera bientôt mis à l’épreuve de l’entrée en action des réformes, et le résultat pourrait avoir des conséquences importantes et durables pour les efforts visant à mettre en œuvre des réformes structurelles ailleurs dans le monde.

Ces réformes ne sont jamais faciles à entamer et sont généralement difficiles à terminer. Les politiciens les préconisent quand ils sont dans l'opposition, mais les adoptent et les maintiennent rarement une fois au gouvernement. La raison est simple : les coûts de chargement à payer d’emblée et les avantages différés dans le temps rendent les réformes structurelles politiquement périlleuses.

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