El partidismo amenaza a Estados Unidos

NEWPORT BEACH – En 2013, la buena reputación de Estados Unidos en materia de política económica quedó seriamente dañada (en parte con razón, en parte sin ella). Ahora está cobrando fuerza una idea distorsionada y relacionada con lo anterior, idea que en 2014 puede suponer obstáculos innecesarios a las políticas que son indispensables para el fortalecimiento de la recuperación económica de Estados Unidos.

La crisis financiera internacional de 2008 dejó la economía estadounidense atrapada en un equilibrio de bajo nivel, caracterizado por insuficiente creación de empleo, persistencia del desempleo juvenil y de largo plazo y una distribución cada vez más desigual de los ingresos, la riqueza y las oportunidades. Pero el inicio de 2013 encontró a muchos estadounidenses esperanzados de que los líderes del Congreso superaran (al menos en parte) la polarización y la disfunción política que ponían freno a la recuperación.

Estas expectativas de una menor turbulencia política recibieron en aquel momento un estímulo gracias al acuerdo bipartidario que evitó el denominado abismo fiscal (aunque en el límite y no sin una alta cuota de resentimiento) y al pacto logrado en enero para elevar el límite de endeudamiento (aunque en forma temporal). La esperanza de que a partir de allí ambos partidos dejaran de apelar a estrategias de extorsión y se redujera la incertidumbre en materia de políticas llevó a que casi todos los pronósticos hablaran de un crecimiento económico más veloz y más inclusivo.

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