Moderniser l’économie au Moyen-Orient

AMMAN – Plutôt que d’utiliser « Moyen-Orient » ou « monde arabe », de plus en plus je préfère le terme WANA, signifiant Asie de l'Ouest et Afrique du Nord. Mais quelque soit le terme, le danger est le même dans la région : la crise économique fournit un alibi presque parfait aux gouvernements et à d’autres pour ne rien changer à la routine, tandis qu’il faudrait lancer un signal d’alerte tonitruant.

C’est à peine si la crise économique mondiale a contribué à masquer les déséquilibres chroniques structurels de la région. Presque toutes les économies WANA sont hyper-dépendantes des recettes pétrolières et humanitaires. Ce n’est en effet pas exagéré de dire que ces recettes sont une sorte de soutien vital. Et la solution pour détourner ces pays de cette addiction semble être un problème insurmontable.

L’esprit rentier et le syndrome hollandais qui règnent au WANA ont touché tous les pays, producteurs de pétrole ou non, depuis les transferts de fonds des travailleurs émigrés au flux d’investissement financier des pays pétroliers (alimentant surtout l’immobilier) en passant par les bulles boursières et l’aide étrangère. Par conséquent, le fossé entre les revenus s’est davantage creusé, au sein des pays WANA et entre ces derniers.

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