Moderniser le multilatéralisme

WASHINGTON DC – On se souviendra de 2008 comme d'une année d'incroyables tourments. La crise financière a suivi de près les crises alimentaire et énergétique. Le monde est maintenant en plein marasme économique, source de nombreuses pertes d'emplois. Quasiment aucun pays n’y échappe. Nous évoluons dans une nouvelle zone de danger, où les risques sont accrus pour l’exportation et l’investissement, le crédit, les systèmes bancaires, les budgets et les balances des paiements. En 2009, nous assisterons probablement au premier déclin du commerce mondial depuis 1982.

Comme toujours, les pauvres sont les plus vulnérables. Avec le resserrement des conditions de crédit et l'affaiblissement de la croissance, les gouvernements des pays en développement sont moins aptes à remplir les objectifs d'éducation et de santé, et à investir dans l'infrastructure nécessaire à une croissance durable. Les recettes se tarissent. Cent millions de personnes ont déjà sombré dans la pauvreté à cause des prix élevés des denrées alimentaires et du pétrole. Selon les estimations, à chaque point de pourcentage que perd le taux de croissance des pays en développement, ce sont 20 millions de personnes supplémentaires qui s’enfoncent dans la pauvreté.

Les pays s'efforcent de briser le gel du crédit, de soutenir les institutions financières, de faire baisser les taux d’intérêt, de consolider les filets de sécurité et de relancer la consommation et l’investissement afin de stimuler le commerce, de donner du travail aux gens et de jeter les bases de la croissance future. Ces démarches seront plus efficaces si les pays agissent de concert, en se serrant les coudes. Le nationalisme économique toujours prêt à profiter de situations désavantageuses n’est que source de dangers. Pour résoudre les problèmes mondiaux, il faut des solutions mondiales.

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