Modernisation à la carte

BERLIN – Il y a deux siècles, les révolutions française et américaine exprimèrent le concept de droits naturels et inaliénables de l’homme. Cependant, il fallut près de deux siècles de guerres, de désastres politiques et sociaux, de décolonisation pour que cette idée soit mondialement acceptée, du moins en théorie.

Au départ, l’idée de droits de l’homme était cantonnée à la politique intérieure. Dans les relations internationales, seul le pouvoir, et non le droit, importait : la notion traditionnelle de souveraineté de l’État se concentrait exclusivement sur le pouvoir – c'est-à-dire sur le contrôle exercé sur une population et un territoire – et protégeait l’autorité de l’État, qu’elle soit imposée de manière civilisée ou brutale, démocratique ou autoritaire.

Le procès de Nuremberg, durant lequel furent jugés les criminels de guerre allemands à la fin de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, marqua un premier changement important dans la compréhension mondiale du concept de souveraineté. Pour la première fois, un appareil d’État entier devait répondre de ses crimes lors du procès de ses représentants et de ses hommes de main.

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