按菜单定菜的现代化

柏林-两个世纪以前美国和法国革命为我们带来了人权不可剥夺的自然法观念。然而,在经过了将近两个世纪的战争、政治和社会灾难以及非殖民化后,这种观念才至少是在理论上为全球所接受。

一开始,人权的概念仅仅局限于国内政治。在国际关系方面,强权而不是权利依然是发挥作用的唯一因素。国家主权的传统观念只集中在权力上,即对人民和领土的控制以及保护国家权威,不管这种权威权是以文明还是残暴、民主还是专制的方式来行使的。

二战后对德国战犯的纽伦堡审判标志着世界对于主权概念认识的第一次重大改变。这是第一次整个国家的领导层因为它的罪行而被推上审判席,它的代表和帮凶被送交法庭审判。

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