Modelos de locura

Los servicios de salud mental alrededor del mundo se basan en gran medida en la idea de que estar molesto o desorientado es un tipo de padecimiento similar a una enfermedad clínica. Aquí en Australasia, importamos esta perspectiva del extranjero, y reprimimos activamente la comprensión más holística de los Maoríes y los aborígenes sobre las aflicciones humanas. Lo hicimos a pesar de que numerosos estudios muestran que las tasas de recuperación de “enfermedades mentales” en los países “subdesarrollados” son mucho más altas que en las sociedades “avanzadas”.

En la actualidad, más y más problemas se están redefiniendo como “desórdenes” o “enfermedades”, que supuestamente están causados por predisposiciones genéticas y por desequilibrios bioquímicos. Los eventos de la vida pasan a ser meros detonadores de una bomba de tiempo biológica interior.

Así, el sentirse muy triste se ha convertido en un “desorden depresivo”. El preocuparse mucho es “desorden de la ansiedad”. El ser extremadamente tímido se ha convertido en el “desorden de ocultamiento de la personalidad”. El golpear personas es “desorden explosivo intermitente”. El apostar, beber, usar drogas o comer en exceso también son enfermedades. Lo mismo se aplica a comer poco, dormir poco o tener poca actividad sexual. Nuestro Manual diagnóstico y estadístico de los trastornos mentales tiene 886 páginas con tales enfermedades. A las conductas inusuales o indeseables se les llama “síntomas” y las etiquetas son “diagnósticos”.

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