Des modèles de folie

Les services psychiatriques du monde entier reposent en grande partie sur le postulat qu'être dérangé ou désorienté est un type de maladie comme les autres. Ici en Australasie, nous avons importé cette perspective de l'étranger, et avons participé de manière active à la suppression des approches maories et aborigènes plus holistiques de la souffrance humaine. Nous l'avons fait en dépit de nombreuses études qui montrent que le taux de guérison des “maladies mentales” dans les pays “sous-développés” est bien supérieur à celui des sociétés “avancées”.

De nos jours, de plus en plus de problèmes sont rebaptisés “troubles” ou “maladies,” censément provoqués par des prédispositions génétiques et des déséquilibres biochimiques. Les événements de la vie sont relégués à l'état de simples déclencheurs d'une bombe à retardement biologique sous-jacente.

Ainsi, un sentiment de tristesse intense est devenu un “trouble dépressif.” Celui qui s'inquiète trop est atteint de “troubles anxieux.” La timidité extrême est devenue “l'évitement.” La personne qui bat les autres est atteinte de “trouble explosif intermittent.” Les jeux, la boisson, les drogues ou la nourriture en excès sont aussi des maladies. La même chose s'applique à trop peu de nourriture, de sexe ou de sommeil. Notre Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders comporte 886 pages de maladies de ce genre. Les comportements inhabituels ou indésirables sont appelés “symptômes” et les étiquettes correspondantes “diagnostic.”

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