Un ordre mondial du développement en pleine mutation

DUBAÏ – Les Objectifs du Millénaire pour le développement ont permis d’établir à l’échelle mondiale un cadre efficace d’appréhension des problématiques sociétales fondamentales telles que la pauvreté, la santé, les famines, et l’éducation. Tandis que s’amorcent les discussions autour de la forme et de l’étendue des programmes de développement mondial qui succèderont aux OMD, lesquels expireront en 2015, il convient de s’intéresser au rôle du secteur privé, et de repenser l’approche globale de la communauté internationale en faveur du développement.

Le développement économique constitue le meilleur moyen – et en réalité le seul – d’aboutir à une réduction durable de la pauvreté. Il est en effet créateur d’un cercle vertueux. La croissance crée l’emploi, lequel permet d’endiguer la pauvreté.

Le secteur privé joue à cet égard un rôle décisif. Les flux de capitaux issus du secteur privé éclipsent en effet aujourd’hui les mouvements traditionnels de fonds d’assistance en provenance du secteur public. Pas moins de 87% d’un total de 200 milliards $ de ressources américaines allouées en 2010 au développement ont par exemple consisté en flux de capitaux privés. Dans les années 1960, par opposition, l’aide publique étrangère en faveur du développement représentait 70% des flux de capitaux en direction des pays en voie de développement.

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