Samburu woman uses mobile phone in North Kenya before Lake Turkana Festival David Mbiyu/Getty Images

Příslib digitálních financí

BERKELEY – Revoluce v oblasti hospodářského rozvoje leží doslova na dlani jedné ruky. Mobilní telefony a digitální technologie se rychle šíří po celém světě a my si stále plně neuvědomujeme jejich důsledky pro hospodářský rozvoj, zejména pro oblast financí. Čím dříve se to změní, tím lépe pro lidi z celého světa.

V rozvíjejících se ekonomikách dnes dvě miliardy osob – neboli 45% všech dospělých – nemají formální účet v bance, finanční instituci nebo u poskytovatele mobilních peněz. U žen, chudých lidí a osob žijících ve venkovských oblastech je podíl „lidí bez banky“ ještě vyšší. Nejméně 200 milionům malých a středních podniků navíc schází dostatečné úvěry, případně k nim nemají přístup vůbec.

Pokud se úspory přechovávají mimo finanční soustavu a úvěry jsou vzácné a drahé, pak tím trpí podnikatelský duch, investice i hospodářský růst. Podle nedávné zprávy vypracované společností McKinsey Global Institute (MGI) mohou naštěstí digitální technologie – počínaje mobilními telefony – tento problém rychle vyřešit a podpořit rychlejší a inkluzivnější růst.

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