Governor of the Bank of England speaks with Chief Executive Officer of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York Kirsty Wiggleworth/Getty Images

伴随通胀目标设定者的痛苦

发自东京——美国,欧洲和日本都取得了积极的经济发展。美国失业率一路下降,目前只有4%多一点。欧元区失业率虽然还有9%,但相对过去十年来说已是进展重大。日本已经基本上实现了充分就业,其国内劳动力需求如此之高,以至于那些新毕业生不仅能找到工作,而且还能挑工作。

然而有一个关键领域的进展似乎拖了后腿:通货膨胀。美国10月份消费者价格指数达到2.2%,欧洲央行和日本央行迄今未能达到大致2%的通胀目标,欧元区年均物价涨幅徘徊在1.5%左右,日本则一直盘踞在1%的范围内。

有好些因素可证明努力达到通胀目标的必要性:货币市场将可以摆脱接近于零的利率;由于全球化和人工智能不断在减少本地工人的重要性,对货币升值损害出口竞争力的忧虑将有所缓解;而近年来世界主要央行所推行的扩张性货币政策也可以得到维护。

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