El abrazo medido de China a la India

BEIJING – La visita de tres días del presidente chino, Xi Jinping, a la India, el segmento principal de una gira reciente en el sur y centro de Asia, arroja luz sobre la estrategia incipiente de China para con sus vecinos, particularmente el otro gigante de Asia. Los recientes cambios sutiles en las relaciones sino-indias podrían terminar teniendo enormes consecuencias para el mundo en las próximas décadas.

Bajo el mandato de Xi, China está adoptando una nueva estrategia de relevancia que podría llamarse "reequilibrio dual": implementar reformas domésticas audaces para recuperar el impulso económico y, al mismo tiempo, revisar la postura y la diplomacia global de China, centrándose en los recursos en riesgo en los países que la rodean. El Cinturón Económico de la Ruta de la Seda, que se centra en Asia central, y la Ruta de la Seda Marítima del Siglo XXI, que se enfoca en los países que bordean las rutas marítimas del Océano Índico, son iniciativas destacadas en la agenda de política exterior de China. Su éxito dependerá, en gran medida, de si China obtiene o no respaldo de otras grandes potencias, específicamente Rusia en Asia central y la India en el sur de Asia.

China entiende que la posición de la India en el escenario mundial se ha venido fortaleciendo desde el inicio de este siglo. El nuevo primer ministro de la India, Narendra Modi, un líder autoritario y con aspiraciones, oriundo de Gujarat, uno de los estados más desarrollados del país, ha prometido sacar a la economía india de un bajón de media década, mejorar el nivel de vida de los pobres de su país e impulsar la postura de la India como potencia global. El desafío para la política china es reconciliar las ambiciones de Modi con los objetivos estratégicos de China.

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