Pour une mondialisation intégratrice

Dans le contexte du boom économique mondial, la plupart des pays en développement connaissent une croissance rapide. Cela ne diminue pas pour autant la nécessité de réduire le fossé croissant entre les revenus des pays développés et ceux des pays en développement, ce qui alimente depuis plus d'un demi-siècle des débats sur la scène internationale.

Très importantes il y a une trentaine d'années, les inégalités au niveau international se sont encore creusées. La caractéristique la plus gênante dans cette tendance est le grand nombre "d'accidents de croissance" survenus durant les dernières décennies du 20° siècle, seules quelques économies en développement (l'Asie de l'Est et l'Inde) parvenant à maintenir une croissance élevée.

Mais au niveau international, un autre écart de revenus mérite d'attirer l'attention. C'est celui grandissant que l'on observe depuis 1980 entre les pays en développement. Comme le souligne le récent rapport de l'ONU intitulé World Economic and Social Survey 2006 [Bilan économique et social mondial 2006], on peut tirer quatre conclusions de cette "double divergence" relative à la croissance dans le monde en développement.

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