Paul Lachine

理智战胜市场

米兰——

自二战结束以来的66年里,实际上所有中央集权的计划经济都消失了,主要原因是低效和低增长。如今,市场、价格信号、分散管理、刺激措施以及回报驱动的投资几乎是各地资源分配的特征。

这并不是因为市场在道德上更胜一筹,尽管市场需要自由选择才能有效运行。与其他工具相比,市场工具在刺激措施、效率和创新方面正好拥有巨大的优势。但是市场并不完美,当面临外部影响(个人行动所带来的无法计价的后果——比如,空气污染)、信息差距和不对称性以及协调问题(当有多项平衡,一些平衡比另一些平衡更重要时)时,市场就会表现不佳。

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