Un financement innovant pour les Objectifs du millénaire

PARIS – La crise économique mondiale a fait beaucoup de victimes - les chômeurs, les propriétaires incapables de rembourser leur prêt et les retraités qui voient fondre leurs pensions - mais nulle part ses conséquences n'ont été aussi dévastatrices que dans les pays en développement. La remise en question des fragiles avancées réalisées ces dernières années, notamment en Afrique, menace de rejeter dans l'extrême pauvreté des millions de personnes qui venaient à peine d'en sortir. Non seulement ces pays risquent d'être confrontés à d'énormes souffrances humaines, mais de fortes pressions économiques, politiques et sociales menacent maintenant de s'abattre sur eux et de les déstabiliser, déclenchant des conflits à une échelle sans précédent.

La spirale descendante actuellement à l'oeuvre est particulièrement inquiétante, car la crise économique a frappé au moment où apparaissaient des premières lueurs de progrès, notamment en matière de santé. Depuis 2002, le taux de décès dû au sida est en baisse, les maladies à l'origine de la mortalité infantile comme le paludisme et la rougeole sont combattues plus efficacement, l'éducation primaire universelle fait quelques avancées et il en est de même de l'objectif de l'eau potable pour tous.

Mais la crise économique mondiale mine les quelques efforts des pays développés visant à respecter les engagements qu'ils ont pris dans le cadre de l'aide publique au développement (APD) pour parvenir aux Objectifs du millénaire pour le développement. Un rapport de l'ONU indique que les investissements annuels des pays donateurs s'élèvent à 115 milliards de dollars, alors qu'il en faudrait 150. Si rien ne change, on ne parviendra probablement pas à réaliser les OMD à long terme.

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