La militarisation des Andes

Alors que le monde entier a les yeux rivés sur l’Irak, le Plan Colombie, conçu par les Etats-Unis pour lutter contre le narcotrafic et les guérillas de gauche en Colombie, est une stratégie qui pourrait bientôt être mise en œuvre dans tous les pays des Andes, voire dans toute l’Amérique latine. Il n’est question de la Colombie en ce moment qu’au sujet de la possible réélection du Président Alvaro Uribe ce mois-ci. Dans ce contexte, la propagation du Plan Colombie, malgré des résultats peu concluants, passe inaperçue.

Lorsqu’il a été présenté en 2000, le Plan Colombie avait deux raisons d’être : s’attaquer à la production et à l’exportation de stupéfiants, et renforcer la campagne de lutte contre les Forces armées révolutionnaires de Colombie (FARC). A l’époque, les Etats-Unis considéraient que ces deux menaces de plus en plus liées risquaient, sans réaction militaire appropriée, d’entraîner la faillite de l’Etat colombien.

De fait la Colombie, qui avait reçu 1,4 milliards de dollars des Etats-Unis entre 1989 et 1999 pour lutter contre le narcotrafic, n’avait toujours pas résolu le problème. Pire encore, les FARC ne faisaient que renforcer leur influence économique, territoriale et militaire. Entre 1995 et 1998, l’armée colombienne a connu sa période la plus terrible – victimes, captures, et embuscades – en quatre décennies de guérilla.

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