La forza aggregante dell’acqua

MOSCA – A maggio il Vietnam è diventato il 35esimo, decisivo, firmatario della Convenzione Onu sull’utilizzazione dei corsi d’acqua internazionali per scopi diversi dalla navigazione (New York, 1997). Come risultato 90 giorni dopo, il 17 agosto, la convenzione entrerà in vigore.

Il fatto che ci siano voluti quasi 50 anni per elaborare e, infine, raggiungere la soglia necessaria alla ratifica dimostra che c’è qualcosa di sbagliato nel moderno sistema multilaterale. Indipendentemente dai disaccordi di vecchia data, da come le risorse d’acqua dolce dovrebbero essere assegnate e gestite e dalle comprensibili preferenze di governi e professionisti dell’acqua nel poter contare su accordi di bacino, piuttosto che su strumenti giuridici internazionali, l’aver aspettato così a lungo può essere spiegato solo dalla mancanza di una leadership politica. Per questo sebbene ora il mondo festeggi l’adozione della tanto attesa Convenzione, non possiamo di certo cullarci sugli allori.

Circa il 60% di tutta l’acqua dolce scorre nei bacini transfrontalieri, ma solo il 40% di questi è soggetto a regolamentazione. In un mondo sempre più sottoposto a forte stress idrico, le risorse condivise stanno diventando uno strumento di potere, cosa che acuisce la concorrenza all’interno degli Stati e tra i Paesi. La lotta per l’acqua non fa che aumentare le tensioni politiche e gli impatti negativi sugli ecosistemi.

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