Spojeni vodou

MOSKVA – Vietnam se v květnu stal rozhodujícím 35. signatářem Úmluvy OSN o právu využívání mezinárodních vodních toků pro neplavební účely z roku 1997. Po uplynutí 90 dnů, tedy 17. srpna 2014, tak úmluva nabude účinnosti.

Skutečnost, že k jejímu sestavení a ratifikaci nezbytným počtem stran bylo zapotřebí téměř 50 let, dokládá, že s moderním systémem multilateralismu je něco vážně v nepořádku. Přes dlouhotrvající spory nad způsobem rozdělení a správy přeshraničních sladkovodních zdrojů a pochopitelný sklon vlád a vodohospodářů spoléhat spíše na dohody v rámci povodí než na mezinárodní právní nástroje, nelze řečené půlstoletí čekání vysvětlit jinak než nedostatkem politického vedení. Svět tedy dlouho očekávané přijetí úmluvy oslaví, ale nesmíme usnout na vavřínech.

Zhruba 60 % veškeré sladké vody protéká přeshraničními povodími; podle odhadů se ale jen 40 % těchto povodí řídí nějakou dohodou. Ve světě s čím dál napjatějším vodním hospodářstvím se sdílené vodní zdroje stávají nástrojem moci, rozdmýchávajícím soupeření jak uvnitř zemí, tak mezi nimi. Zápas o vodu stupňuje politická pnutí a zhoršuje dopady na ekosystémy.

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