Mijail Gorbachov y el fin de la Guerra Fría

Este mes Mijail Gorbachov celebró su cumpleaños número 75 con un concierto y una conferencia en su fundación en Moscú. Lamentablemente, no es una figura popular entre el pueblo ruso, que lo culpa de la pérdida del poder soviético. Sin embargo, como Gorbachov ha respondido a quienes lo acusan entre gritos: “Recuerden, yo soy quien les dio el derecho a gritar”.

Cuando llegó al poder en 1985, Gorbachov intentó disciplinar al pueblo soviético como un modo de superar el estancamiento económico. Cuando quedó en evidencia que la disciplina no solucionaría el problema, lanzó la perestroika (“reestructuración”). Y cuando los burócratas entorpecieron continuamente sus órdenes, utilizó la glasnost, o discusión abierta y democratización. No obstante, una vez que la glasnost dejó que la gente dijera lo que pensaba, muchos expresaron la idea de abandonar el sistema imperante. Para diciembre de 1991, la Unión Soviética había dejado de existir.

La política exterior de Gorbachov, a la que llamó “nuevo pensamiento”, también contribuyó al fin de la Guerra Fría. Gorbachov señaló que la seguridad era un juego del cual todos podían beneficiarse a través de la cooperación. En lugar de intentar construir tantas armas nucleares como fuera posible, proclamó una doctrina de “suficiencia”, manteniendo sólo una cantidad mínima para garantizar la protección. También creía que el control soviético sobre un imperio en Europa del Este estaba resultando demasiado muy caro y dando muy pocos beneficios, y que la invasión a Afganistán había sido un desastre costoso.

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