Migrants in Croatia Jeff J Mitchell/Getty Images

L'avenir de la gouvernance des migrations

DACCA – Nous vivons dans un monde en rapide évolution, hyper-connecté, où les marchandises, les capitaux et les personnes sont plus mobiles que jamais. Pourtant bien que les pays montrent une volonté de coopérer à l'échange des marchandises et des capitaux, la communauté internationale montre de son côté un faible d'appétit d'améliorer la façon dont elle régit la mobilité humaine.

Après les persécutions à grande échelle et le déplacement de personnes durant la Seconde Guerre mondiale, les dirigeants du monde ont eu le courage d'élaborer la Convention sur les réfugiés de 1951. Ce faisant, ils ont renoncé à une partie de leur souveraineté nationale - en acceptant le principe de non-refoulement - afin de promouvoir la solidarité mondiale envers les réfugiés.

D'autre part, les dirigeants de pays ont considéré les migrations comme un problème qui pouvait être géré de façon ponctuelle, par des accords bilatéraux ou unilatéraux visant principalement à répondre aux besoins du marché du travail dans les économies développées. Rétrospectivement, il est maintenant clair que cette approche était insuffisante pour faire face à la montée en puissance de la mobilité humaine qui accompagne l'intégration économique régionale et mondiale.

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