Anadolu Agency/Getty Images

Dissetare il Medio Oriente

FEZ – Il Rapporto Onu sullo sviluppo delle risorse idriche mondiali conferma quello che molti sanno già: centinaia di migliaia di persone che vivono in Medio Oriente e Nord Africa (la regione MENA) –  in particolare in Algeria, Giordania, Libia, Marocco, Palestina, Sudan, Siria e Yemen – hanno affrontato nel 2016 quella che può definirsi come la peggior crisi idrica da decenni. Questa è l’ultima cosa di cui la regione ha bisogno mentre porta avanti il suo impegno per la crescita e la diversificazione dell’economia.  

I fattori che hanno contribuito alla situazione attuale sono molteplici e includono il cambiamento climatico, la desertificazione, l’inquinamento idrico e l’iper-sfruttamento delle risorse naturali. Un’informazione, un’educazione e una comunicazione inadeguate non fanno che esacerbare molte di queste sfide poiché rafforzano un atteggiamento di scarsa consapevolezza, nonché di scarso impegno verso pratiche ecocompatibili. Si aggiunga a ciò l’incapacità dei governi – molti dei quali sono alle prese con altri conflitti e crisi – di ridurre o gestire il rischio di catastrofi, ed ecco che il quadro diventa realmente drammatico.         

L’Algeria, ad esempio, sta vivendo la sua peggiore siccità degli ultimi cinquant’anni. Poiché l’agricoltura del paese dipende fortemente dalle piogge, e a causa dell’arretratezza delle infrastrutture, quest’anno la resa cerealicola ha registrato un calo del 40 percento. Malgrado le sue vaste riserve di petrolio e gas, l’Algeria non è riuscita a garantire risorse idriche accessibili e sufficienti per la sua popolazione, per non dire opportunità di lavoro. Il risultato è che oggi il paese è sconvolto dalle proteste popolari.  

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