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L'irrigation du Moyen Orient

FÈS – Le Rapport mondial sur le développement de l'eau des Nations Unies ne fait confirmer ce que l'on savait déjà : des centaines de milliers de personnes de la région du Moyen-Orient et de l'Afrique du Nord (MENA), en particulier en Algérie, en Jordanie, en Libye, au Maroc, en Palestine, au Soudan, en Syrie et au Yémen, sont confrontées en 2016 aux pires pénuries d'eau depuis plusieurs décennies. C'est la dernière chose dont cette région avait besoin, à l'heure où elle vise la croissance et la diversification économique.

Plusieurs facteurs ont contribué à la situation actuelle, notamment le changement climatique, la désertification, la pollution de l'eau et une mauvaise utilisation des ressources naturelles. Des insuffisances en matière de communication, d'éducation et d'information ne font qu'aggraver bon nombre de ces défis. Ces insuffisances viennent renforcer le manque de sensibilisation, sans parler de l'engagement, dans des pratiques respectueuses de l'environnement. Ajoutez à cela une réduction insuffisante des risques de catastrophes et la mauvaise gestion par les gouvernements (dont beaucoup sont mobilisés par d'autres conflits et d'autres des crises) et la situation qui en résulte est vraiment désespérée.

L'Algérie, par exemple, connaît sa pire sécheresse depuis cinquante ans. Comme une grande partie de l'agriculture du pays dépend essentiellement des précipitations, en raison d'infrastructures insuffisantes, les rendements en céréales sont en baisse de 40 % cette année. Malgré ses importantes ressources en pétrole et en gaz, l'Algérie n'a pas réussi à s'assurer des ressources suffisantes en eau à bas prix pour sa population, sans parler d'offres d'emploi adaptées. Par conséquent, le pays est maintenant en proie à des manifestations populaires.

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